The gold discovered in the vicinity of Rio das Mortes, in 1702, caused many emboabas and São Paulo adventurers to settle in a small village, where they built a chapel in devotion to St. Anthony. Some historians consider that the first name of that village was &lquot;Ponta do Morro&rquot;.Being one of the places with the highest amount of surface gold in Brazil, it has rapidly developed and in 1718 its name became &lquot;Vila de São João del-Rei&rquot;, paying tribute to Prince D. José, the future king of Portugal. At that time, the city won the architectural configuration which remains to this day.In the 19th century the production of gold began to decrease, but the Portuguese crown nevertheless launched what was called &lquot;derrama&rquot;, a compulsory taxation of one fifth of every amount of gold extracted. As a result of this oppressive attitude of the metropolis, a revolutionary attitude arose, known as Inconfidência Mineira.José da Silva Xavier, known as Tiradentes, was the leader of the movement, whose objective was to turn Brazil into a republic, independent from Portugal. After being turned in by one of the participants of the movement, Tiradentes was convicted by official troops to the gallows in a public square in 1792.On December 6, 1889, after the Proclamation of the Republic, the city changed its name to Tiradentes, in tribute to the hero who fought for Brazil’s independence. Having become a National Historical and Artistic Heritage site in 1938, the city still has several samples of 18th century architecture, such as the Igreja Matriz de Santo Antônio, whose façade is sculpted with the beautiful forms by Alejadinho, as well as many other churches and museums. Maria Fumaça, a steam train, is also one of the attractions, functioning in full throttle since its construction in 1881. The famous Tiradentes Film Festival and Gastronomy Festival are also great opportunities to visit the city which, on top of all these attractions, is surrounded by waterfalls.